Accession of North Macedonia to the European Union

Ongoing accession process of North Macedonia to the EU

Current Progress
Chapters Closed
Not yet applicable
Prerequisites
Candidate Status Granted
Negotiations
Membership Application24 March 2004
Application Approved24 March 2020
Ratification of Treaty
Not yet applicable
Accession
Defense & Military
NATO 22
Accession27 March 2020
Major Obstacles
Economy
Adoption of Euro
Comparison
EU averageNorth Macedonia
Population16,555,837
Area156,417 km2
60,536 mi2
GDP$634 billion
(nominal, 2021 est.)
$742 billion
(PPP, 2021 est.)
GDP per capita $34,149
(nominal, 2021 est.)
$44,766
(PPP, 2021 est.)
HDI0.895
Gini30.2
Differences upon EU Accession
Entire EU
EU Population
EU Area
EU GDP
EU GDP per capita
HDI
Gini
New Official Languages25
+ 1 (Macedonian)
Average EU Member
Avg. EU Member Population
Avg. EU Member Area
Avg. EU Member GDP
Avg. EU Member GDP per capita
Initiatives, Treaties, & Programs
Others
Travel
Accession to Schengen Area
Coat of arms of North Macedonia.svg
flag North Macedonia portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

The accession of North Macedonia to the European Union has been on the current agenda for future enlargement of the EU since 2005, when it became a candidate for accession. Macedonia submitted its membership application in 2004, thirteen years after its independence from Yugoslavia. It is one of seven current EU candidate countries, together with Albania, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey and Ukraine.

The use of the country name "Macedonia" was the object of a dispute with neighboring Greece between 1991 and 2019, resulting in a Greek veto against EU and NATO accession talks, which lasted from 2008 to 2019. After the issue was resolved, the EU gave its formal approval to begin accession talks with North Macedonia and Albania in March 2020.[1]

However, in November 2020, Bulgaria effectively blocked the official start of North Macedonia's EU Accession Negotiations over what it perceives as slow progress on the implementation of the 2017 Friendship Treaty between the two countries, state-supported or tolerated hate speech, and minority claims towards Bulgaria.[2]

On 24 June 2022, Bulgaria's parliament approved lifting the country's veto on opening EU accession talks with North Macedonia. On 16 July 2022, the Assembly of North Macedonia also approved the revised French proposal, allowing accession negotiations to begin.[3] The start of negotiations was officially launched on 19 July 2022.[4]

History

The flags of the European Union and North Macedonia

North Macedonia began its formal process of rapprochement with the European Union in 2000, by initiating negotiations about the EU's Stabilisation and Association Process, and it became the first non-EU country in the Balkans to sign the Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA), on 9 April 2001 in Luxembourg. The agreement was ratified by the Macedonian parliament on 12 April 2001 and came into force on 1 April 2004.

On 22 March 2004, Macedonia submitted its application for EU membership. On 6 September 2004, the Macedonian government adopted a National Strategy for European integration, supported by the country's parliament through its Commission for European Issues. The government subsequently began the procedure of answering the questionnaire of the European Commission regarding its performance in preparation for membership in accordance with the Copenhagen criteria, a process that was finished by 31 January 2005. The European Council officially granted the country candidate status on 17 December 2005, after a review and a positive recommendation of the candidacy by the European Commission.

After the naming dispute with Greece was solved in 2019, accession negotiations were expected to start within the same year, but in June 2019 the EU General Affairs Council decided to postpone the decision to October, due to objections from a number of countries including the Netherlands and France.[5] France vetoed the decision again in October.[6] On 25 March 2020 the Council of the European Union decided to open accession negotiations, which was endorsed by the European Council the following day.[7][8]

On 17 November 2020 Bulgaria blocked the official start of accession talks with the country.[9] North Macedonia was told to offer further guarantees to Bulgaria that it would honour the 2017 friendship treaty, which deals with historical issues.[10]

Name dispute with Greece

A major obstacle for the accession process was the Republic's unresolved objection by Greece over its name, as Greece argued that it implied territorial ambitions towards Greece's own northern province of Macedonia. While the country preferred to be called by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia, the European Union, in acknowledgment of concerns raised by Greece, maintained a practice of recognising it only as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", a compromise of "provisional reference" introduced by the United Nations in 1993. Greece, as any other EU country, has veto power against new accessions, and blocked Macedonian accession due to the naming dispute.[11][12][13][14]

On 12 June 2018, an agreement was reached between Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras and his Macedonian counterpart Zoran Zaev, known as the Prespa agreement,[15] under which the country would be renamed the "Republic of North Macedonia".[16] As part of this deal, Greece explicitly withdrew its previous opposition, allowing the EU to approve on 26 June 2018 a pathway to starting accession talks.[17]

Historical and linguistic dispute with Bulgaria

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  • North Macedonia parliament votes for deal with Bulgaria, clearing way for EU membership talks

Although Bulgaria was the first country to recognize the independence of the then Republic of Macedonia, most of its academics, as well as the general public, do not recognize the Macedonian language and nation formed after the Second World War as being separate from Bulgarian proper.[18] As part of the efforts to find a solution to the Macedonia name dispute with Greece, the Macedonian constitution was changed twice (in 1995, and then again in 2018) to formally exclude any possible territorial aspirations towards neighboring countries.[19][20]

Some Macedonian politicians consider Bulgarian territory to be part of a greater Macedonia, claiming the majority of the population there are oppressed ethnic Macedonians.[21] Macedonia and Bulgaria signed a friendship treaty to improve their complicated relations in August 2017. A joint commission on historical and educational issues was formed in 2018 to serve as a forum where controversial historical and educational issues could be raised and discussed. This commission has made little progress in its work for a period of one year.[22]

In October 2019, Bulgaria set out a “Framework position” warning that it would block the accession process unless North Macedonia fulfilled demands regarding anti-Bulgarian ideology in the country,[23][24] and ultimately over an 'ongoing nation-building process' based on historical negationism of the Bulgarian identity, culture and legacy in the broader region of Macedonia.[25][26][27]

Bulgarian politicians claim North Macedonia remains the only country in NATO, that is an EU-candidate, whose politics is based on communist historical and linguistic dogmas accepted by ASNOM.[28] Concerning the Macedonian language, Bulgaria advises the EU to avoid using the term “Macedonian language” during the accession talks, and instead use the term “Official language of Republic of North Macedonia”, reaffirming that it does not recognize the language as separate from Bulgarian.[24] In North Macedonia this is widely perceived as a direct attack on its national identity and language.[29]

In September 2020 Bulgaria has sent an explanatory memorandum to the Council of the European Union containing its framework position on the accession of North Macedonia.[30] On 17 November 2020, Bulgaria refused to approve the European Union's negotiation framework for North Macedonia, effectively blocking the official start of accession talks with this country over slow progress on the implementation of the 2017 Friendship Treaty between the two countries, state-supported or tolerated hate speech and minority claims towards Bulgaria.[2]

The veto received condemnation by some intellectuals,[31] and criticism from international observers.[32][33] A survey conducted in November 2020, by Alpha Research of 803 people from all over Bulgaria, found that 83.8% of Bulgarians were against the accession of North Macedonia in the EU until the historical dispute is solved, only 10.2% of Bulgarians supported the accession with the rest not having an opinion.[34][35]

In June 2022 at the very end of the French Presidency of the Council of the European Union (January–June), an urgent proposal has been put by the president Emmanuel Macron to resolve the dispute between the two countries. The proposal provoked a political crisis in Bulgaria. On June 8, Slavi Trifonov withdrew his party from Bulgaria’s governing coalition, citing the issue of North Macedonia. This faced criticism from President Rumen Radev, who said the proposal was relatively good. However, the government abdicated its responsibility and delegated it entirely to the parliament. As result on 22 June the Bulgarian government faced a motion of no confidence, which it lost.[36] Nevertheless, on 24 June, after heated discussions, the parliament approved lifting the veto.[37] President Macron claimed that the European leaders have put a lot of pressure on Bulgaria to accept this deal, confirming its approval was a “very good signal”. On June 25th, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Sofia stated in a standpoint that the speed with which North Macedonia would approach the EU membership, already depended on itself.[38] Two days before the end of the French presidency of the EU, the Prime Minister of North Macedonia Kovačevski stated that the government remains of the opinion that the agreement proposed from Paris and approved by Bulgaria is unacceptable for the country. However since then, the proposal has been backed by the government of North Macedonia.[39] In early July 2022, protests began in North Macedonia against the French proposal. However, the proposal was accepted by the Assembly of North Macedonia on 16 July 2022.[3]

On July 17 in Sofia, the foreign ministers of Bulgaria and North Macedonia signed a second bilateral protocol to the Treaty of Good Neighborhood and Friendship between the two countries. Such protocols were supposed to be signed every year, but in practice they have not been signed since 2019. According to the decision of the Bulgarian National Assembly of June 24, the signing of this protocol is a condition for Bulgaria to approve the Negotiating Framework for the Republic of North Macedonia. The protocol contains specific measures and deadlines for the implementation of agreements on historical issues between the two countries, measures against hate speech, etc.[40]

Domestic politics

EU funding

North Macedonia has so far received €1.3 billion of development aid until 2020 from the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance, a funding mechanism for EU candidate countries.

Campaign

The government's motto for the candidacy is "The Sun, too, is a star.", referring to the sun from the flag of North Macedonia being displayed among the other stars in the flag of Europe.

Government structuring

North Macedonia's government has established a management infrastructure for the European integration process on the basis of a paper adopted in 1997 under the title "The strategic bases of the Republic of [North] Macedonia on achieving the membership of the European Union". It consists of the following institutions:

  • The Committee for Euro-Atlantic Integration plays the central role in the decision-making of the country's policies in the European integration process. It is chaired by the Prime Minister with members including Deputy Prime Ministers, all ministers in the Government, the Governor of the National Bank of North Macedonia, and the President of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts.
  • The Working Committee for European Integration of the Government of the Republic of [North] Macedonia (WCEI) – It is chaired by the Deputy Prime Ministers in charge of EU Integration, whose deputy is the Minister of Economy. The members are the secretaries from all Ministries. It is an operational, inter-ministerial body establishing the methods and dynamics for implementation of strategic decisions, political guidelines and priorities of the Government, as well as monitoring the realisation of the concrete tasks.
  • The Deputy to the President of the Government is responsible for the European integration as centre in the management and co-ordination of the operational part of the integration process. Its support and service is the Sector for European Integration within the General Secretariat of the Government of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
  • The Sector for European Integration within the Republic's government is given the task to organise, co-ordinate and synchronise the EU integration process. It is organised in seven units in charge of the approximation of the national legislation with that of the EU, translation of the EU legal acts, institution building, support to the WCEI, co-ordination of foreign assistance, and information to the broader public on EU and the European integration process.
  • Departments/Sectors/Units for European Integration within the Ministries have similar structure and competencies as the central Sector for European Integration within the Government, being a key link in the institutional infrastructure.
  • The Ministry of Foreign Affairs – EU domain – is responsible for communications with the EU structures through the Mission of former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in Brussels, gathering valid and timely information that have impact on the integration process and presenting the uniform perspectives and positions in the European structures.

The other institutions supporting the EU integration process are the following:

  • The Republic's Assembly and its Commission for European Issues
  • The Secretariat for Legislation
  • The General Secretariat of the Government
  • The Subcommittee of the WCEI for approximation of the legislation with its working groups

Public opinion

79% of the population of North Macedonia is in favor of EU accession.[41] However, those who think North Macedonia is closer to EU entry today than it was in 2005, when it first received candidate member status, dropped from 57% to 32% between 2018 and 2021.

Sentiments among ethnic Albanians of North Macedonia are traditionally strongly pro-EU.[42]

Chronology of relations with the EU

Timeline
Date Event
October 1992 The Republic of Macedonia appoints its representative in Brussels,[citation needed] agreeing to the use of the "former Yugoslav" before its constitutional name ("Republic of Macedonia") designation in bilateral relations.[citation needed]
22 December 1995 The Republic and the EU establish diplomatic relations. Negotiations commence directed at an agreement with a wide scope of co-operation in the fields of trade, financial operations and transport.
10 March 1996 Macedonia becomes a full partner in the PHARE Programme (Poland and Hungary: Assistance for Reconstruction of their Economies).
November 1997 The Transport Agreement enters into force
1 January 1998 The Cooperation Agreement enters into force.
February 1998 1st political talks on ministerial level are held in Ohrid, in accordance with the Cooperation Agreement.
11 March 1998 A Trade and Textile Agreement is signed (it remains in force until 1998 and is later replaced with a new agreement on 1 January 2000).
21 and 22 March 1998 1st meeting of a mutual Cooperation Council in Skopje.
5 March 1999 2nd meeting of the Cooperation Council in Brussels
24 January 2000 The European Commission adopts directives regarding co-operation and regarding the official start of negotiations for potential membership.
March 2000 Opening of the EU Delegation in Skopje; appointment of the first Chief of the Delegation.
5 April 2000 Start of 1st round of negotiations on the SAA.
June 2000 Adoption of a Perspective (regulation) on Potential Membership by the European Council in Fiera.
24 November 2000 The SAA is initiated at the Zagreb Summit.
December 2000 Entering into force of Council Regulation on Introducing Exceptional Trade Measures; Macedonia joins the Regional CARDS Programme 2002–2006.
16 February 2001 Interim Agreement on SAA Trade Provisions signed.
9 April 2001 SAA and Interim Agreement on Trade and Trade Issues signed. The Agreement enters into force on 1 June 2001.
January 2002 Supplementary Protocol on Wine and Spirits, and Textile Products Trade Agreement.
20 February 2003 The President of the European Commission, Romano Prodi, visits Skopje, reconfirming the EU position on the country's perspective for EU membership.
25 July 2003 Last of 6 meetings of the Cooperation Council in Brussels.
February 2004 “Declaration on the Application for EU membership” signed by the Macedonian parliament.
22 March 2004 At a ceremony in Dublin, Ireland, the Macedonian government submitted the application for membership in the EU.
1 April 2004 SAA enters into force following the ratifications by all the EU Member States.
Status of SAA ratification
Event North Macedonia [43] Croatia [44] Albania [45] Montenegro [46][Note 1] Bosnia and
Herzegovina [48]
Serbia [49][Note 2] Kosovo* [50][Note 3]
SAA negotiations start 2000-04-05 2000-11-24 2003-01-31 2005-10-10 2005-11-25 2005-10-10 2013-10-28[52]
SAA initialled 2000-11-24 2001-05-14 2006-02-28 2007-03-15 2007-12-04 2007-11-07 2014-07-25[53]
SAA/IA signature 2001-04-09 2001-10-29 2006-06-12 2007-10-15 2008-06-16 2008-04-29 2015-10-27[54]
Interim Agreement:
EC ratification 2001-04-27 2002-01-30 2006-06-12 2007-10-15 2008-06-16 2009-12-08 N/A [Note 4]
SAP state ratification 2001-04-27 2002-01-30 2006-10-09 2007-11-14 2008-06-20 2008-09-22 N/A [Note 4]
entry into force 2001-06-01 2002-03-01 2006-12-01 2008-01-01 2008-07-01 2010-02-01 N/A [Note 4]
Deposit of the instrument of ratification:
SAP state 2001-04-27 2002-01-30 2006-11-09 2007-11-13 2009-02-26 2008-09-22 2016-02-26
Austria 2002-09-06 2002-03-15 2008-05-21 2008-07-04 2009-09-04 2011-01-13 N/A
Belgium 2003-12-29 2003-12-17 2008-10-22 2010-03-29 2010-03-29 2012-03-20 N/A
Bulgaria entered the EU later 2008-05-30 2009-03-13 2010-08-12 N/A
Croatia entered the EU later N/A
Cyprus entered the EU later 2008-05-30 2008-11-20 2009-07-02 2010-11-26 N/A
Czech Republic entered the EU later 2008-05-07 2009-02-19 2009-07-23 2011-01-28 N/A
Denmark 2002-04-10 2002-05-08 2008-04-24 2008-06-25 2009-05-26 2011-03-04 N/A
Estonia entered the EU later 2007-10-17 2007-11-22 2008-09-11 2010-08-19 N/A
Finland 2004-01-06 2004-01-06 2007-11-29 2009-03-18 2009-04-07 2011-10-21 N/A
France 2003-06-04 2003-06-04 2009-02-12 2009-07-30 2011-02-10 2012-01-16 N/A
Germany 2002-06-20 2002-10-18 2009-02-19 2009-11-16 2009-08-14 2012-02-24 N/A
Greece 2003-08-27 2003-08-27 2009-02-26 2010-03-04 2010-09-20 2011-03-10 N/A
Hungary entered the EU later 2007-04-23 2008-05-14 2008-10-22 2010-11-16 N/A
Ireland 2002-05-06 2002-05-06 2007-06-11 2009-06-04 2009-06-04 2011-09-29 N/A
Italy 2003-10-30 2004-10-06 2008-01-07 2009-10-13 2010-09-08 2011-01-06 N/A
Latvia entered the EU later 2006-12-19 2008-10-17 2009-11-12 2011-05-30 N/A
Lithuania entered the EU later 2007-05-17 2009-03-04 2009-05-04 2013-06-26 N/A
Luxembourg 2003-07-28 2003-08-01 2007-07-04 2009-06-11 2010-12-22 2011-01-21 N/A
Malta entered the EU later 2008-04-21 2008-12-11 2010-01-07 2010-07-06 N/A
Netherlands 2002-09-09 2004-04-30 2007-12-10 2009-01-29 2009-09-30 2012-02-27 N/A
Poland entered the EU later 2007-04-14 2009-02-06 2010-04-07 2012-01-13 N/A
Portugal 2003-07-14 2003-07-14 2008-07-11 2008-09-23 2009-06-29 2011-03-04 N/A
Romania entered the EU later 2009-01-15 2010-01-08 2012-05-22 N/A
Slovakia entered the EU later 2007-07-20 2008-07-29 2009-03-17 2010-11-11 N/A
Slovenia entered the EU later 2007-01-18 2008-02-07 2009-03-10 2010-12-07 N/A
Spain 2002-10-04 2002-10-04 2007-05-03 2009-03-12 2010-06-15 2010-06-21 N/A
Sweden 2002-06-25 2003-03-27 2007-03-21 2009-03-11 2009-09-14 2011-04-15 N/A
United Kingdom 2002-12-17 2004-09-03 2007-10-16 2010-01-12 2010-04-20 2011-08-11 N/A
European Communities or
European Union and Euratom
2004-02-25 2004-12-21 2009-02-26 2010-03-29 2015-04-30 2013-07-22 2016-02-24 [Note 5]
SAA entry into force 2004-04-01 2005-02-01 2009-04-01 2010-05-01 2015-06-01 2013-09-01 2016-04-01[58]
EU membership (SAA lapsed) (TBD) 2013-07-01 (TBD) (TBD) (TBD) (TBD) (TBD)

N/A: Not applicable.

  1. ^ Montenegro started negotiations in November 2005 while a part of Serbia and Montenegro (SiM). Separate technical negotiations were conducted regarding issues of sub-state organizational competency. A mandate for direct negotiations with Montenegro was established in July 2006. Direct negotiations were initiated on 26 September 2006 and concluded on 1 December 2006.[47]
  2. ^ Serbia started negotiations in November 2005 while part of SiM, with a modified mandate from July 2006.
  3. ^ The political status of Kosovo is disputed. Having unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008, Kosovo is formally recognised as an independent state by 99 UN member states (with another 13 states recognising it at some point but then withdrawing their recognition) and 94 states not recognizing it, while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The European Union remains divided on its policy towards Kosovo, with five EU member states not recognizing its independence. The EU launched a Stabilisation Tracking Mechanism for Kosovo on 6 November 2002 with the aim of aligning its policy with EU standards. On 10 October 2012 the European Commission found that there were no legal obstacles to Kosovo signing a SAA with the EU, as independence is not required for such an agreement.[51]
  4. ^ a b c No Interim Agreement associated with Kosovo's SAA was concluded.[55]
  5. ^ Kosovo's SAA was the first signed after the entry into force of the Lisbon treaty, which conferred a legal personality to the EU. As a result, unlike previous SAAs Kosovo's is exclusively between it and the EU and Euratom, and the member states are not parties independently.[52][56][57]
3 June 2004 1st meeting of the Stabilisation and Association Committee held in Skopje.
6 September 2004 National Strategy for European Integration adopted by the Macedonian government.
14 September 2004 1st meeting of the Stabilisation and Association Council in Brussels.
1 October 2004 Questionnaire on accession preparation submitted to the Macedonian government by the European Commission.
31 January 2005 Answers to the Questionnaire finalised by the Macedonian government.
14 February 2005 Answers to the Questionnaire submitted to the European Commission by a Macedonian delegation in Brussels.
10 May 2005 Additional questions to the Questionnaire of the European Commission that were received on 22 April 2005 are answered, accepted by the Republic's government, and sent to Brussels.
9 November 2005 Positive recommendation on Macedonian accession issued by the European Commission.
17 December 2005 The European Council in Brussels approves the candidate status.
9 November 2006 The European Commission decides to start visa facilitation negotiations with the Republic.
23 June 2008 Following the EU summit, the resolution of the naming dispute was added as a precondition to EU accession.[59]
14 October 2009 The European Commission recommended the start of the accession negotiations for full-fledged membership of the Republic of Macedonia.[60]
29 March 2012 European Commission launches a High Level Accession Dialogue with Skopje.[61]
25 January 2019 The Prespa Agreement enters into force on 25 January 2019, ending the decades long naming-dispute. It is outlined in the agreement that Greece will no longer veto the accession talks between North Macedonia and the European Union.
26 March 2020 The European Council formally approved start of accession talks.[62]

Visa liberalisation process

On 1 January 2008 the visa facilitation and readmission agreements between Macedonia and the EU entered into force.[63] Macedonia began a visa liberalisation dialogue with the EU in February 2008 and was added to the list of visa exempt nationals on 19 December 2009, allowing their citizens to enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania without a visa when travelling with biometric passports.[64]

Negotiation progress

The screening process is underway and no chapters have been opened thus far.

Screening, Clusters, and Chapters
Acquis chapter Screening Started Screening Completed Chapter Opened Chapter Closed
1. Free Movement of Goods 19 July 2022
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers 19 July 2022
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services 19 July 2022
4. Free Movement of Capital 19 July 2022
5. Public Procurement 19 July 2022
6. Company Law 19 July 2022
7. Intellectual Property Law 19 July 2022
8. Competition Policy 19 July 2022
9. Financial Services 19 July 2022
10. Information Society & Media 19 July 2022
11. Agriculture & Rural Development 19 July 2022
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy 19 July 2022
13. Fisheries 19 July 2022
14. Transport Policy 19 July 2022
15. Energy 19 July 2022
16. Taxation 19 July 2022
17. Economic & Monetary Policy 19 July 2022
18. Statistics 19 July 2022
19. Social Policy & Employment 19 July 2022
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy 19 July 2022
21. Trans-European Networks 19 July 2022
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments 19 July 2022
23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights 19 July 2022
24. Justice, Freedom & Security 19 July 2022
25. Science & Research 19 July 2022
26. Education & Culture 19 July 2022
27. Environment & Climate Change 19 July 2022
28. Consumer & Health Protection 19 July 2022
29. Customs Union 19 July 2022
30. External Relations 19 July 2022
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy 19 July 2022
32. Financial Control 19 July 2022
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions 19 July 2022
34. Institutions
35. Other Issues
Acquis chapter Screening Started Screening Completed Chapter Opened Chapter Closed
Progression 33 / 33
100% complete
0 / 33
0% complete
0 / 33
0% complete
0 / 33
0% complete


Please note as of 2021, clusters have been implemented to provide better organization and some additional items have been added to align with the new EU methodology.

Clusters Acquis Chapter State of Play Cluster Opened Cluster Closed
Overview Overview 0 out of 34 0 out of 6 0 out of 6
Fundamentals 23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights
24. Justice, Freedom & Security
Economic criteria
Functioning of democratic institutions
Public administration reform
5. Public Procurement
18. Statistics
32. Financial Control
Internal Market 1. Free Movement of Goods
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services
4. Free Movement of Capital
6. Company Law
7. Intellectual Property Law
8. Competition Policy
9. Financial Services
28. Consumer & Health Protection
Competitiveness and inclusive growth 10. Information Society & Media
16. Taxation
17. Economic & Monetary Policy
19. Social Policy & Employment
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy
25. Science & Research
26. Education & Culture
29. Customs Union
Green agenda and sustainable connectivity 14. Transport Policy
15. Energy
21. Trans-European Networks
27. Environment
Resources, agriculture and cohesion 11. Agriculture & Rural Development
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy
13. Fisheries
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions
External relations 30. External Relations
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy
34. Institutions
35. Other Issues
Report History
Acquis chapter 2011[65] 2012[66] 2013[67] 2014[68] 2015[69] 2016[70] 2018[71] 2019[72] 2020[73] 2021[74]
1. Free Movement of Goods Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services Early stage Moderately prepared Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
4. Free Movement of Capital Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
5. Public Procurement Well prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
6. Company Law Considerable efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
7. Intellectual Property Law Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
8. Competition Policy Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
9. Financial Services Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
10. Information Society & Media Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
11. Agriculture & Rural Development Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy Good level of preparation Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
13. Fisheries Moderately prepared Further efforts needed Further efforts needed Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
14. Transport Policy Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
15. Energy Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
16. Taxation Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
17. Economic & Monetary Policy Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
18. Statistics Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
19. Social Policy & Employment Considerable efforts needed Considerable efforts needed Early stage Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy Some level of preparation Considerable efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
21. Trans-European Networks Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights Considerable efforts needed Further efforts needed Further efforts needed Further efforts needed Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Moderately prepareddagger Moderately prepareddagger Moderately prepareddagger
24. Justice, Freedom & Security Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepareddagger Moderately prepareddagger Moderately prepared
25. Science & Research Considerable efforts needed Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
26. Education & Culture Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
27. Environment Considerable efforts needed Further efforts needed Further efforts needed Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
28. Consumer & Health Protection Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
29. Customs Union No major difficulties expected Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
30. External Relations Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
32. Financial Control Further efforts needed Early stage Early stage Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions Totally incompatible with acquis Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage
34. Institutions Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt
35. Other Issues Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt
Legend:

Chapters in bold indicate completed chapters.

dagger indicates chapters in which the European Commission has simultaneously awarded the chapter both "some level of preparation" AND "moderately prepared".

  totally incompatible   early stage   considerable efforts needed   some level of preparation   further efforts needed   moderately prepared   no major difficulties expected   good level of preparation   well prepared / well advanced

Impact of joining

Member countries Population Area (km2) GDP
(billion US$)
GDP
per capita (US$)
Languages
North Macedonia North Macedonia 1,836,713 25,713 12.383 6,143 Macedonian
EU27 447,007,596 4,233,262 17,046 38,957 24
EU27+1 448,844,309
(+0.45%)
4,162,269
(+0.62%)
17,277.98
(+0.06%)
38,134
(–0.2%)
25

See also

References

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