Ligament

Connective tissue between bones
Ligament
Details
SystemMusculoskeletal system
FunctionConnect bones to other bones; maintain position of organs
Identifiers
LatinLigamentum (Plural: Ligamenta)
MeSHD008022
TA98A03.0.00.034
FMA30319
Anatomical terminology
[edit on Wikidata]

A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones. It is also known as articular ligament, articular larua,[1] fibrous ligament, or true ligament. Other ligaments in the body include the:

  • Peritoneal ligament: a fold of peritoneum or other membranes.
  • Fetal remnant ligament: the remnants of a fetal tubular structure.
  • Periodontal ligament: a group of fibers that attach the cementum of teeth to the surrounding alveolar bone.

Ligaments are similar to tendons and fasciae as they are all made of connective tissue. The differences among them are in the connections that they make: ligaments connect one bone to another bone, tendons connect muscle to bone, and fasciae connect muscles to other muscles. These are all found in the skeletal system of the human body. Ligaments cannot usually be regenerated naturally; however, there are periodontal ligament stem cells located near the periodontal ligament which are involved in the adult regeneration of periodontist ligament.

The study of ligaments is known as desmology.

Articular ligaments

Articular ligament

"Ligament" most commonly refers to a band of dense regular connective tissue bundles made of collagenous fibers, with bundles protected by dense irregular connective tissue sheaths. Ligaments connect bones to other bones to form joints, while tendons connect bone to muscle. Some ligaments limit the mobility of articulations or prevent certain movements altogether.

Capsular ligaments are part of the articular capsule that surrounds synovial joints. They act as mechanical reinforcements. Extra-capsular ligaments join in harmony with the other ligaments and provide joint stability. Intra-capsular ligaments, which are much less common,[citation needed] also provide stability but permit a far larger range of motion. Cruciate ligaments are paired ligaments in the form of a cross.[2]

Ligaments are viscoelastic. They gradually strain when under tension and return to their original shape when the tension is removed. However, they cannot retain their original shape when extended past a certain point or for a prolonged period of time.[3] This is one reason why dislocated joints must be set as quickly as possible: if the ligaments lengthen too much, then the joint will be weakened, becoming prone to future dislocations. Athletes, gymnasts, dancers, and martial artists perform stretching exercises to lengthen their ligaments, making their joints more supple.

The term hypermobility refers to the characteristic of people with more-elastic ligaments, allowing their joints to stretch and contort further; this is sometimes still called double-jointedness.

Hypermobile finger

The consequence of a broken ligament can be instability of the joint. Not all broken ligaments need surgery, but, if surgery is needed to stabilise the joint, the broken ligament can be repaired. Scar tissue may prevent this. If it is not possible to fix the broken ligament, other procedures such as the Brunelli procedure can correct the instability. Instability of a joint can over time lead to wear of the cartilage and eventually to osteoarthritis.

Artificial ligaments

One of the most often torn ligaments in the body is the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The ACL is one of the ligaments crucial to knee stability and persons who tear their ACL often undergo reconstructive surgery, which can be done through a variety of techniques and materials. One of these techniques is the replacement of the ligament with an artificial material. Artificial ligaments are a synthetic material composed of a polymer, such as polyacrylonitrile fiber, polypropylene, PET (polyethylene terephthalate), or polyNaSS poly(sodium styrene sulfonate).[4]

Examples

Head and neck
Thorax
Pelvis
  • Anterior sacroiliac ligament
  • Posterior sacroiliac ligament
  • Sacrotuberous ligament
  • Sacrospinous ligament
  • Inferior pubic ligament
  • Superior pubic ligament
  • Suspensory ligament of the penis


Wrist
  • Palmar radiocarpal ligament
  • Dorsal radiocarpal ligament
  • Ulnar collateral ligament
  • Radial collateral ligament
  • Scapholunate ligament
Knee
  • Anterior cruciate ligament
  • Lateral collateral ligament
  • Posterior cruciate ligament
  • Medial collateral ligament
  • Cranial cruciate ligament — quadruped equivalent of anterior cruciate ligament
  • Caudal cruciate ligament — quadruped equivalent of posterior cruciate ligament
  • Patellar ligament

Peritoneal ligaments

Certain folds of peritoneum are referred to as ligaments. Examples include:

  • The hepatoduodenal ligament, that surrounds the hepatic portal vein and other vessels as they travel from the duodenum to the liver.
  • The broad ligament of the uterus, also a fold of peritoneum.

Fetal remnant ligaments

Certain tubular structures from the fetal period are referred to as ligaments after they close up and turn into cord-like structures:[citation needed]

Fetal Adult
ductus arteriosus ligamentum arteriosum
extra-hepatic portion of the fetal left umbilical vein ligamentum teres hepatis (the "round ligament of the liver").
intra-hepatic portion of the fetal left umbilical vein (the ductus venosus) ligamentum venosum
distal portions of the fetal left and right umbilical arteries medial umbilical ligaments

See also

References

  1. ^ "ligament" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ Daniel John Cunningham (1918). Cunningham's text-book of anatomy (5th ed.). Oxford Press. p. 1593.
  3. ^ R.A., Hauser; E.E., Dolan; H.J., Phillips; A.C., Newlin; R.E., Moore; B.A., Woldin (2013-01-23). "Ligament Injury and Healing: A Review of Current Clinical Diagnostics and Therapeutics" (PDF). The Open Rehabilitation Journal. 6 (1): 5. doi:10.2174/1874943701306010001.
  4. ^ Lessim S, Migonney V, Thoreux P, Lutomski D, Changotade S. (June 2013). "PolyNaSS bioactivation of LARS artificial ligament promotes human ligament fibroblast colonisation in vitro". Biomed Mater Eng. 23 (4): 289–297. doi:10.3233/BME-130753. PMID 23798650.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ligaments.
  • v
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Joints
Types
  • Fibrous
    • Gomphosis
    • Suture
    • Syndesmosis
    • Interosseous membrane
  • Cartilaginous
    • Synchondrosis
    • Symphysis
  • synovial: Plane joint
    • Hinge joint
    • Pivot joint
    • Condyloid joint
    • Saddle joint
  • synostosis
  • by range of motion: Synarthrosis
  • Amphiarthrosis
  • Diarthrosis
Terminology
Motions
  • general: Flexion/Extension
  • Adduction/Abduction
  • Internal rotation/External rotation
  • Elevation/Depression
  • specialized/upper limbs: Protraction/Retraction
  • Supination/Pronation
  • specialized/lower limbs: Plantarflexion/Dorsiflexion
  • Eversion/Inversion
Components
  • capsular: Joint capsule
  • Synovial fluid
  • Synovial bursa
  • Articular disk/Meniscus
  • extracapsular: Ligament
  • Enthesis
  • v
  • t
  • e
Joints and ligaments of the head and neck
Temporomandibular
  • Lateral
    • Temporomandibular ligament
  • Medial
    • Sphenomandibular ligament
    • Stylomandibular ligament
Atlanto-occipital
  • capsule
  • membranes (Anterior atlantooccipital membrane
  • posterior atlantooccipital membrane)
  • v
  • t
  • e
Joints and ligaments of the arm
Shoulder
Sternoclavicular
  • Anterior sternoclavicular
  • Posterior sternoclavicular
  • Interclavicular
  • Costoclavicular
Acromioclavicular
  • Synovial: Acromioclavicular
  • Coracoclavicular (trapezoid
  • conoid)
Glenohumeral
  • Capsule
  • Coracohumeral
  • Glenohumeral (superior, middle, and inferior)
  • Transverse humeral
  • Glenoid labrum
Elbow
Humeroradial
Humeroulnar
Proximal radioulnar
Forearm
Distal radioulnar
Hand
Wrist/radiocarpal
Intercarpal
  • Midcarpal
  • Radiate carpal
  • Dorsal intercarpal
  • Palmar intercarpal
  • Interosseous intercarpal
  • Scapholunate
  • Pisiform joint (Pisohamate
  • Pisometacarpal)
  • Carpometacarpal
    Intermetacarpal
    Metacarpophalangeal
    Interphalangeal
    Other
    • Carpal tunnel
    • Ulnar canal
    • v
    • t
    • e
    Joints and ligaments of torso
    Vertebral
    Syndesmosis
    Of vertebral bodies
    • anterior longitudinal ligament
    • posterior longitudinal ligament
    Of vertebral arches
    • ligamenta flava
    • supraspinous ligament
      • nuchal ligament
    • interspinous ligament
    • intertransverse ligament
    Symphysis
    Synovial joint
    Atlanto-axial
    • Lateral: no ligaments
    • anterior atlantoaxial ligament
    • posterior atlantoaxial ligament
    Zygapophysial
    • no ligaments
    Lumbosacral
    • iliolumbar ligament
    Sacrococcygeal
    • anterior sacrococcygeal ligament
    • posterior sacrococcygeal ligament
    Thorax
    Costovertebral
    Head of rib
    Costotransverse
    • Costotransverse ligament
    • Lumbocostal ligament
    Sternocostal
    • intraarticular sternocostal ligament
    • radiate sternocostal ligaments
    • costoxiphoid ligaments
    Interchondral
    • no ligaments
    Costochondral
    • no ligaments
    Pelvis
    Syndesmoses of pelvic girdle
    • Obturator membrane
    • Obturator canal
    Pubic symphysis
    • superior pubic ligament
    • inferior pubic ligament
    Sacroiliac
    • anterior sacroiliac ligament
    • posterior sacroiliac ligament
    • interosseous sacroiliac ligament
    • ligaments connecting the sacrum and ischium: sacrotuberous ligament
    • sacrospinous ligament
    • v
    • t
    • e
    Joints and ligaments of the human leg
    Hip
    • femoral (iliofemoral
    • pubofemoral
    • ischiofemoral)
    • head of femur
    • transverse acetabular
    • acetabular labrum
    • capsule
    • zona orbicularis
    Knee
    Tibiofemoral
    • Capsule
    • Anterior meniscofemoral ligament
    • Posterior meniscofemoral ligament
    • extracapsular: popliteal
      • oblique
      • arcuate
    • collateral
      • medial/tibial
      • fibular/lateral
    • intracapsular: cruciate
      • anterior
      • posterior
    • menisci
      • medial
      • lateral
    • transverse
    • anterolateral
    Patellofemoral
    • Patellar tendon
    • Infrapatellar fat pad
    Tibiofibular
    Superior tibiofibular
    Inferior tibiofibular
    Foot
    Talocrural and ankle
    • medial: medial of talocrural joint/deltoid
      • anterior tibiotalar
      • posterior tibiotalar
      • tibiocalcaneal
      • tibionavicular
    • lateral: lateral collateral of ankle joint
      • anterior talofibular
      • posterior talofibular
      • calcaneofibular
    Subtalar/talocalcaneal
    • anterior/posterior
    • lateral/medial
    • interosseous
    Transverse tarsal
    Talocalcaneonavicular
    • dorsal talonavicular
    • plantar calcaneonavicular/spring
    • bifurcated (calcaneonavicular)
    Calcaneocuboid
    • dorsal calcaneocuboid
    • long plantar
    • plantar calcaneocuboid
    • bifurcated (calcaneocuboid)
    Distal intertarsal
    Cuneonavicular
    • plantar
    • dorsal
    Cuboideonavicular
    • plantar
    • dorsal
    Intercuneiform
    • plantar
    • dorsal
    • interosseous
    Other
    Tarsometatarsal/Lisfranc
    • plantar
    • dorsal
    Intermetatarsal/metatarsal
    • plantar
    • dorsal
    • interosseous
    • superficial transverse
    • deep transverse
    Metatarsophalangeal
    Interphalangeal
    Arches
    • v
    • t
    • e
    Anatomy of the peritoneum and mesentery
    General
    • Peritoneum
      • cavity
    • Mesentery
    Abdominal
    From
    ventral mesentery
    • Lesser omentum
      • Hepatoduodenal ligament
      • Hepatogastric ligament
    • Liver
      • Coronary ligament
        • (Left triangular ligament
      • Right triangular ligament
      • Hepatorenal ligament)
      • Falciform ligament
    From
    dorsal mesentery
    • Greater omentum
      • Gastrophrenic ligament
      • Gastrocolic ligament
      • Gastrosplenic ligament
    • Mesentery
    • Splenorenal ligament
    • Phrenicocolic ligament
    • Folds
      • Umbilical folds
      • Supravesical fossa
      • Medial inguinal fossa
      • Lateral umbilical fold
      • Lateral inguinal fossa
      • Ileocecal fold
    Abdominal cavity
    • Greater sac
    • Lesser sac
    • Omental foramen
    General
    • Cystohepatic triangle
    • Hepatorenal recess
    • Abdominal wall
      • Inguinal triangle
    • Peritoneal recesses
      • Paracolic gutters
      • Paramesenteric gutters
    Pelvic
    Uterus/ovaries
    Recesses
    • Female
      • Rectouterine pouch
      • Rectouterine fold (Uterosacral ligament)
      • Vesicouterine pouch
      • Ovarian fossa
      • Paravesical fossa
    • Retroperitonium
    • Male
      • Rectovesical pouch
      • Pararectal fossa
    Spaces
    • Extraperitoneal space
    • Retroperitoneal space
    • Retropubic space
    • v
    • t
    • e
    Fetal vascular remnant ligaments
    Heart
    • Ligamentum arteriosum
    Liver
    Umbilical
    • Medial umbilical ligament
      • see also Median umbilical ligament and Lateral umbilical fold
    • v
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    Connective tissue
    Physiology
    • Soft tissue
    • Fibrosis
    • Scarring
    Composition
    Cells
    Resident
    • Fibroblast
    • Fibrocyte
    • Reticular cell
    • Tendon cell
    • Adipocyte
    • Melanocyte
    Wandering cells
    • Mast cell
    • Macrophage
    Extracellular
    matrix
    Ground substance
    • Tissue fluid
    Fibers
    • Collagen fibers
    • Reticular fibers
    • Elastic fibers
      • Elastin
      • Fibrillin
      • FBN1
        • FBN2
        • FBN3
      • EMILIN1
      • Elaunin
    Types
    Proper
    Loose
    • Reticular
    • Adipose
      • Brown
      • White
    Dense
    Embryonic
    • Mucoid
    • Mesenchymal
    Specialized
    • Cartilage
    • Bone
    • Blood
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    • Terminologia Anatomica